Bolomor Cave (Tavernes de la Valldigna) is located in the southern slope of a wide valley known as ‘La Valldigna’, oriented from west to east with low little altitude and between the ‘Serra de les Creus’ and the Mondúver massif. “La Valldigna” is the geological limit between the iberian and Betic systems, and extends toward the Mediterranean Sea, throughout the coastal plain.
Four main types of landscapes can be distinguished in the territory where Bolomor Cave is located according to physiographic characteristics:
1-The Valldigna or valley connected with the coastal plain as a morphological unit. In the past this landscape can be considered as a “mainly open vegetation area” according to its paleoenvironmental and general evolutionary process.
2-The mountains surrounding “La Valldigna”, which are steep and contrast with the plain. This landscape is defined as a “wooded or leafy hillside area occupied in its time mainly by holm oaks”.
3-The river Vaca or Xeraco with its tributary Badell, which are short fluvial courses generating “humid spaces with small woods-gallery adapted to this environment”.
4-The coastal plain with lagoon systems near the sea. This area is described as “spaces flooded with dunes and lakes of fresh water from underground springs”. These are the least degraded areas and those with the fastest transformation.
The archaeological site is situated in the Mondúver massif, in its northernmost foothills. This mountain has 841 m of altitude and describes a NW-SE orientation ridge with the “Alt de la Font Nova” (742 m) and “El Penyalba” (76 m). Towards the south this mountain descends steeply towards the depressions of “La Drova” and “Foia de Barx”. Towards the north, the massif loses height through soft hills and karst plains to “La Valldigna”. Towards the northeast the descent is more pronounced, connecting with the coastal plain of Xeraco 7 km from the coast..
The environment closest to Bolomor Cave corresponds to the ravine with the same name. This name corresponds more to a karstic canyon than to a river course. The landscape shows a wide vertical rocky cliff that forms part of the southern part of the tectonic depression of “La Valldigna”, in front of the largest calcareous buttresses of the “Les Agulles” and “Corbera” mountain ranges that limit the north. A wide northern area can be seen to the town of Cullera from the Bolomor karst opening, which is set like a balcony hanging over the valley. The cave is perpendicular to the flat-bottomed valley, which is almost at sea level and crossed by the Vaca River. This territory is formed by a long ridge to the south, which starts from the “Serra de Cullera” and closes the strip of frequently flooded marsh. A dual geological and mountainous relief is opposed to the west (Iberian to the NW and Betic to the SW) showing heights between 800-600 m. The Betic relief is densely karstified and steep ravines and canyons are embedded in it, such as the Bolomor, in whose final part “the Fonteta del Bolomor” (upwelling that generates a small channel towards “La Valldigna” and the Vaca river) pours its waters. This source is the main karst water supply in the Bolomor environment, discharging the arounding hypogeal flows between the limestones of this Mondúver area.
The current climate of the area is Mediterranean, and the annual precipitation rainfall is usually above 700 mm. The regional orography plays an important role in these values: the mountains stand in the way of the easterly winds favoring the fall of rains, mainly in autumn and, to a lesser extent, in spring. Average annual temperatures are above 16°C and the coldest months around 10°C. The archaeological site is located in the first mountains of a rainy coastal plain.
The vegetation in the area is typically Mediterranean, which is adapted to the summer drought, evergreen, with small and leathery leaves. The climatic holm oaks have disappeared, which is the result of a long historical process of degradation (fires, grazing, agricultural practices, erosion, etc). Today cultivated fields and brushy vegetation predominate with rosemary, thyme, rockrose, etc. The Bolomor ravine, due to its topography and orientation, is a excellent example of a vegetation refuge in which the honeysuckle, as well as endemic plants such as Anthirrinum valentinus or “Conillet blanc” grow and are representatives of the ancient Mediterranean forest.